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BooPPERP (Boobla’s Pandemic Prevention & Emergency Response Plan)

The Boobla’s pandemic prevention plan:
My twin recently told me I should run for office this year after the state of Washington cancelled the need for candidates to collect signatures to get on the ballot. It’s too late in the process to get any name recognition starting as an average nobody and under a shelter in place order where I’d be stuck waging an online campaign from scratch. Anyways, 2022 would be better, if I survive this of course. Buys some time for a vaccine for Covid19, plus the political ramifications of this pandemic and economic depression won’t truly be felt until 2022 going forward. Being that both the GOP and Dems have fucked up their pandemic response, whether intentionally because both parties are capitalist or due to incompetence, there will be a lot of outrage in 2022 and any candidate who actually puts out a policy platform for pandemics will likely be taken seriously in the near future, and have lots of popularity. Also, this won’t be the last pandemic from a zootonic virus. Throw in melting permafrost unleashing viruses that have been frozen for millions of years, it’ll be super critical for political candidates to not only lay out healthcare plans like M4A, but also plans specifically for preventing and responding to pandemics. If I am to survive this current pandemic and I decide to run for office in 2022, here is a general outline of what my pandemic policy platform would be.
Pandemic prevention:
– Halt and reverse deforestation. Many zootonic (animal viruses) are a result of deforestation. Halting and even reversing deforestation can prevent animal viruses from jumping to humans by keeping them deep in the forests where there is much less interaction between the host species and humans.
– End industrial animal agriculture. Factory farming and animal agriculture provide animal viruses much more interaction with humans, thus enabling them more opportunities to mutate again and again until they get the right formula for making the jump to humans and human to human transmission. As bad as Covid19 is, we are immensely lucky that the Bird Flu, with its 50% mortality rate, has not mutated yet into a form where it can spread human to human.
– Abolish the suburbs and end/reverse urban sprawl. Urban sprawl and suburbs leads to further destruction of ecosystems, pushing species that used to live in the urban areas to ecosystems they aren’t familiar with. Species that humans have frequent contact with in urban areas thus interact with species they don’t normally interact with, leading to viruses jumping to them and then to humans. That’s not to mention more humans interacting with species they don’t normally interact with, thus enabling jumping of viruses.
– Develop sustainable food systems. Urban neighborhood permaculture, urban food forests, agroforestry, aquaponics etc. Sustainable food systems would allow cities to be able to feed themselves within city boundaries, therefore reducing the amount of ecosystems destroyed to make way for industrial animal agriculture. It also makes cities more resilient, to where in the event there is a virus outbreak somewhere, all cities can shut down quickly while being able to feed themselves, thus keeping the virus out and minimizing its spread, not only saving lives but helping to buy more time for a vaccine.
– Centralized airline hubs. Today’s P2P (Point to point) model means there are flights from everywhere to everywhere. The travel industry, as good as its social benefits are (in my opinion, traveling is awesome) will always be what spreads a virus. You can’t really stop that, but by bringing back the hub model, where there’s a few major large airports that act as central hubs, one can reduce how fast a virus spreads. So for Covid19, instead of every city in China having direct flights to every city in the U.S, China would have one major hub airport that connects to all the U.S cities. All Chinese cities would fly to that central hub, then catch a connecting flight to the U.S. Same for the U.S, instead of all cities having flights to all Chinese cities, you could have one airport (say you take mine, Sea-Tac) that all U.S passengers fly into, then catch a connecting flight to all the Chinese cities. That way, if a virus breaks out, it’s easier to contain because you know where it is and where it’ll spread from.
– More legroom & seat width, bar glass shields on planes. Most major airlines in the world today have a seat pitch (legroom) of 30 inches, and seat width of 17-18 inches (depends on whether it’s a Boeing or Airbus plane). While not perfect, nothing is, legroom on planes should be added by four inches to 34 inches in economy class. 34 inches is the rare but gold standard of economy class, on JetBlue and the Emirates A380’s. The Boeing 787 was built to be a 2-4-2 setup in economy with comfortable 19 inch wide seats, but all airlines that fly it turned it into a 3-3-3 setup with the minimum 17 inch wide seats. The new Boeing 777X planes are going to be 3-4-3 at 17.5 inch wide seats, even though the original 777 was built to be 3-3-3 at 18.5 inch wide seats. Seat width should be mandated to be 18 inches on single aisle jets and 18.5 inches on twin aisle jets. On the back of every seat should be a bar glass shield, as has been proposed by I believe Lufthansa. These glass shields should also extend out between seats over the armrests. These three things would space out the rows and seats, while also blocking as much as possible breath from going person to person. As much flying as there is today, it’s still actually a small minority of people in the world who have flown. About 10% of the population has flown, most of whom are middle to upper class people. These policies would reduce passenger capacity in economy class, so prices would be raised a little bit, but those who fly frequently are those with money anyways. Even myself, who loves flying and traveling, am lucky to fly just once a year due to being poor. Higher prices wouldn’t hurt me since I have to save up lots anyways to afford my now seemingly annual big sporting event trip (Men’s Final Four 2017, WrestleMania 2019, Rose Bowl 2020).
– Early, immediate and preventive travel shutdowns. When a country shuts itself down, as China did with Covid19, close down effective immediately any and all travel to/from that country and any country that shares a land or sea border with it. Even when Trump had “banned” travel from China, there were people from non-Wuhan parts of China that were catching connecting flights in Japan to the U.S, then testing positive shortly after arriving. When a virus breaks out in a country, it is most likely to first spread to the neighboring countries, as neighbor countries will most often be frequent travel destinations of the other. Thus to keep novel viruses contained, it’s vital to limit travel to/from infected regions as much as possible. As a USian, I can tell you that there will be times where it is the U.S that must be quarantined from the world, not just China, as the infamous Spanish Flu and the 2009 Swine Flu both originated here. There are 1.7 million animal viruses that can be harmful to humans if they made the jump, and almost certainly there are animal viruses here in the U.S that don’t exist elsewhere, as every continent and ecosystem and bioregion etc have different species thus different viruses.
– Within 72 hours of closure of travel to/from virus outbreak area, close down all international travel to countries who haven’t stopped all travel from virus area. As we saw with New York and generally the U.S, most of the cases didn’t come from China but rather Europe. Europe isn’t really antagonistic towards China like the U.S, and hard hit Italy is a major partner in China’s Belt and Road initiative, thus there was no travel “ban” against China by Europe. It spread to China’s BRI partner Italy, who then spread it to Europe and the U.S, and by the time they realized they had a major problem, it was too late for any travel restrictions to work. Cat was out of the bag, so to speak, and the global pandemic was on. When a novel virus breaks out, and it is bad enough that the country with the outbreak shuts itself down, any country that doesn’t stop any and all travel from said country within the first 72 hours following the shutdown, will have travel from itself stopped. With airplane travel and high speed rail and cruise ships and freeways etc enabling mass rapid movement of people across the planet, travel bans don’t really stop a virus, but they can play a role in slowing it down, lessening the amount of people hurt by it and buying time for virology people to study it and for treatments and vaccines to be developed.
– Quarantine hotels. When there’s a new virus outbreak in another country, the very last thing you should be doing is sending special flights to get your citizens out of there quickly, because you risk bringing it home. Have international solidarity, send medical help if requested, and trust the local govt to take care of your citizens, while reassuring them you’ll take care of their citizens that are stranded in the U.S. Setup quarantine hotels in the infected country for your citizens that wish to come home. Passengers are tested and screened when they arrive at the hotel, they stay quarantined for the recommended time, then get tested and screened again the day before their rescue flight home. Setup quarantine hotels here as well. When your passengers from the infected country land back in the U.S, they quarantine again for the recommended time. They must test and screen negative for seven consecutive days before they are allowed to rejoin the public at large. This is to prevent rescue flights from bringing a novel virus here, as happened with Trump when infected citizens were flown on flights with healthy people out of Wuhan after the city had already shut down. China never shut down all travel across all of China, but whenever a full lockdown happens, as China did in Wuhan, then there is to be no rescue flights whatsoever, even with quarantine hotels, out of such city.
– Increase CDC budget from $100 billion to $1 trillion. The U.S currently spends over $3 trillion a year on healthcare. Under a perfectly implemented @Yungneocon (twitter’s best male degrowther/anarchist) healthcare plan (which I’ll explain in a different healthcare system blog post), healthcare spending would be reduced by at least 66%, meaning we’d save over $2 trillion most likely on healthcare. Use that freed up money to expand the CDC (Center for Disease and Control). Have the CDC setup virus research and vaccine research centers in every state and at every university. Have the CDC setup or help fund virus research and vaccine research centers in every country. This would allow more research on more zootonic viruses, earlier detection of possible emerging threats, and more vaccines developed before an outbreak happens, thus quicker vaccination of the population when a virus breaks out, leading to less sick and less death.
– Ban the development and research into biological weapons. That kind of explains itself, so yea.
– Degrowth. Implement degrowth policies to the fullest extent, as doing so would cut global emissions by over 90% in short order. Give everyone azolla to grow in fresh water, aka azolla for all. Azolla is a mean machine at drawing down carbon from the atmosphere, and when it matures it can be turned into soil, thus reversing soil degradation and replenishing and growing more top soil. However, when the azolla matures, you have to turn it into soil quickly within days because azolla is always doubling. If everyone grows azolla and it matures, there’s a point at which we can’t let it double again otherwise it’ll suck down so much carbon we end up with a possible ice age. @BuildSoil on twitter is the expert on azolla. Rewilding and restoration of lands via land reparations to the indigenous. Degrowth combined with azolla for all combined with land reparations to the indigenous will stabilize and stop climate change, thus keeping the unknown viruses in the permafrost frozen. We absolutely do not under any circumstance want those viruses getting out.
So yea, that’s my general outline for a pandemic prevention plan platform, were I to run for office in the coming years. Anyways feel free to recommend something and yea. My next post will be my pandemic response plan, in the inevitable event of future global pandemics, because for those who get through this, it won’t be our last rodeo with zootonic (there’s I think 12 different bat coronaviruses, we’re on the third, first was Sars 1, then MERS, now Sars2-Covid19 oh and the dreaded monster, a mutated Bird Flu that spreads human to human) or even worse, permafrost viruses due to climate change. Stay safe, stay healthy, wear a mask (especially all you white people!!!)

Boobla’s pandemic response plan:
Phase one for 90 days:
– In house lockdown Wuhan style
– Door to door mass testing to find the asymptomatic and mild cases
– Temporary field hospitals to treat the mild so they don’t become severe cases at home/have eyes on the mild 24/7 to ensure they don’t get worse. Special quarantine hotels to isolate the asymptomatic
– Nationalize the ride share drivers, double their pay, use them for at home delivery of food and care packages
– Curbside pickup of groceries 24/7. 24/7 allows for less traffic at any given time, and limits the number of workers needed in store at any given time, thus hopefully lessening the spread of the virus
– Mask wearing for all employees
– Nationalize factories, mass produce N95 masks and PPE
– Contact tracing system setup
– $2k a month UBI funded by a ground rent tax (UBI is permanent), cancellation of rent, M4A (I would say house the homeless in hotels etc but this plan obviously assumes I’ve been elected and am in power, thus homelessness would be abolished/the homeless have already been housed prior to the pandemic)
– Get R0 to 0.1 if possible, if not, get it below 0.5 within the first 30 days and keep it there for the duration of phase one, thus crushing the number of new cases
Phase two for 30 days:
– Stay at home shelter in place (current blue state policy)
– Leave your home only for grocery store shopping and outdoor exercise
– Close every other street for pedestrian use to encourage physical distancing
– Turn all golf courses into parks
– Care packages for every household that includes one N95 mask per person per day for universal mask wearing when out of the house
– Keep R0 below 0.5
Phase three for 30 days:
– Lifting of stay at home shelter in place
– Small gatherings up to 25 people
– Outdoor restaurants, outdoor jobs, outdoor school classes and facilities
– Universal mask wearing out of the house
– Keep R0 below 0.8
Phase four for 30 days:
– Universal mask wearing out of the house
– Resumption of recreational sports that one can reasonably perform with a mask on
– Most jobs reopen but wearing masks
– Normal schools reopen with masks, screenings, temp checks etc
– Gatherings up to 1,000 people with masks and gloves
– Keep R0 below or at 1.0
Phase five until virus gone or vaccine eradicates it:
– Full normal reopening but with universal mask wearing out of the house
– Major sports and large events with crowds but with masks and gloves
– Keep R0 below 1.5, keep any case from doubling
So yea, that’s my outline for a pandemic response plan. If applied during the current times with Covid19, Seattle and Washington state would’ve began phase one for 90 days when our first case was discovered in late January. Cases would’ve gone up for the first few weeks of February (with adequate testing unlike what we’ve had) then halved 2-4 times in March and halved another 2-4 times on top of that in April. As well as Inslee has done compared to other governors, under this plan our cases and deaths would be far lower, and the UBI would’ve allowed everyone to stay home. We’d be in phase two now here in May with a much lower rate of transmission. U.S total deaths would be under 10k probably even lower because if I was in charge, I would’ve just shut everything down the moment China shut Wuhan and Hubei province down, because if I know one thing, China wants to replace the U.S as the world’s #1 global superpower and they aren’t going to shut down and destroy their own economy and delay their reclaiming of world’s top power unless they have literally no other option. If China on their own terms willingly brings its own economy to a screeching halt, it’s a damn good idea for the rest of the world to quickly follow suit. Anyways so yea, too bad we have Trump and Pelosi and Cuomo and heck even the European countries are reopening too quickly. Welp. Us white people of European descent are so incompetent even though we don’t have to be. That’s why the East Asian tigers of China, South Korea, Japan, Singapore, Vietnam, Taiwan etc are going to dominate the rest of the 21st century, barring the old European and Five Eyes powers starting World War 3 to not so much keep their spot atop the global power structure, but to say if we can’t be at the top, nobody can, and thus yeah I’ll stop here you know where I’m going with this. Bleh. Some world.
Stay safe, stay healthy, and wear masks (especially all you white people!!!)

Boobla’s CDC:
– Every university has a virus research lab
– Every university has a vaccine lab
– Every state has a N95 mask and PPE making factory
– Work with other countries to fund and set up virus and vaccine research labs
– Every country studies their respective animal viruses and create needed vaccines
– Global collaboration to share research
– If virus breaks out, every state and country mass produces the vaccine if one is available to ensure quickest possible rollout of vaccination program
– If virus breaks out before a vaccine has been found, every vaccine lab in the world drops what they’re doing and immediately begins process of trying to find a potential vaccine

Human rights

These are a few things which I believe to be basic human rights.

1. Freedom to the earth (the commons). In short, this means I don’t believe in property rights/nation-states/borders etc. Although we may be the dominant species on this planet, we don’t own the earth. The earth is for all of us to share with each other and the millions/billions of other species. No one person may claim to own any grain of sand, salt, rock, water, tree, grass etc. Any claim of ownership over a plot of land, any fences or walls or forms of enclosure are a violation of the human rights of others to inhabit the earth. Also, enclosure of the commons is a violation of the rights of all other species, as we all inhabit this earth together and thus we must share the space.

2. Freedom of movement/migration. We all share this planet together, thus no person may be denied the right to roam freely and to migrate to where they wish. Human beings are human beings, regardless of age, gender, birth place etc. No person shall have to show a piece of paper or card ID of any sort proving who they are in order to cross an artificial imaginary line which only exists on paper and is enforced by men with guns. No person shall have to walk across deserts, dig tunnels, pay ransom to smugglers etc in order to migrate. Borders shall be abolished and public transit shall be internationally linked. Included in the basic human right of freedom of movement is obviously the right to public transit for the sake of human movement, and thus public transit shall be free.

3. Healthcare. Every person has the right to the resources they need to be their healthiest selves. Medication shall be free. Therapy shall be free. Self-care such as massages, facials, pedicures etc shall be free. Gym memberships shall be free. Dental care shall be free. Glasses, knee braces, other bodily support things shall be free. Surgery shall be free except for those which are just self-enhancing. Reproductive care shall be free, including abortion. Things which artificially drive up the cost of healthcare such as hospital monopolies, intellectual property, guilds etc shall be abolished.

4. Healthy organic sustainable local food. Every person has the right to healthy food grown from a seed in nature in a sustainable way using as less water as possible close to home. No person shall have to rely upon their food traveling thousands of miles by large ship, or by plane, or by long haul truck/train. Every person has the right to have their food grown in the most sustainable way possible, whether that be permaculture, aquaponics, agroforestry.

5. Clean water. Every person has the right to clean water, whether it be for drinking purposes or recreational purposes. Due to the point above about sustainable food, every person has a right to water which isn’t polluted by agricultural runoff, industrial waste runoff, road wastewater runoff, or plastic. All sources of wastewater runoff shall be sent to a wastewater treatment facility to be treated before entering the ecosystem again. All roads shall have roadside rain gardens to collect wastewater runoff and beautify neighborhoods.

6. Clean air. Every person has the right to breathe clean air of the highest standard. All sources of air pollution shall be eliminated. Cars shall be abolished. Single family housing shall be abolished, as denser neighborhoods frees up space for parks/green space, which acts as a carbon sink. Green spaces shall be increased dramatically so no person is more than a 5-10 minute walk from an open green space. Trees shall line every street. Every rooftop shall be green. Every tall building shall be covered in vine/vertical gardens so as to be a carbon sink, reduce energy use, and create oxygen. Cities are notorious for low oxygen levels, which is in violation of everyone’s basic right to clean breathable air. Guaranteeing everyone’s right to clean breathable air will also reduce greatly the urban heat island effect.

7. To see the night sky. Every person has a right to connect with the whole universe on clear nights, meaning every person has a right to a night sky free of light pollution. Every light on every street shall be covered with a lid to prevent the light from escaping into the sky. Trees shall surround every building of living people to prevent as much light as possible from escaping into the sky. Every building taller than 10 floors shall turn off all their lights above the 10th floor for 4-8 hours a night, depending on the season. Every town and city shall be darkened enough that every person can see the Milky Way Galaxy on a clear night, and also so that night time animals can live and come out instead of going extinct.

8. Knowledge and education. Every person has a right to the knowledge with which they seek. This means all public education shall be free, all the way up through grad school. Every book at every library shall be free. All things which prevent one from being able to gain knowledge, such as intellectual property, classified/top secret government documents, trade secrets and so forth, shall be abolished.

9. Peace, autonomy, happiness, love. Every person has a right to a long joyful life of their own choosing. Everything which takes away one’s own autonomy, which takes away their choice of life, shall be abolished. This means every gun, bullet, bomb, naval ship, submarine, fighter jet, missile, tank etc shall be abolished. Every weapons factory shall be dismantled. Every possible thing that can be used for coercion, including money, shall be abolished.

There’s more I could do but these are the nine things which come to me right now. These are nine things which I believe in my heart and yea. Feel free to add on.


Sometimes I wonder if there are actually any good politicians, at least here in the U.S since that’s where I am. I just wonder.. I don’t know. I mean, think about it. You could be an ordinary working class person making $50k a year. Maybe you have several hundred followers on twitter and instagram. You take one good vacation a year. You’re just another person walking on the streets or the train.

One day, you decide to run for office. You want to change things etc. You have a working class platform. When you start your campaign, you’re still the same person. Say one year down the road, you win. You’ve been elected. You’re the new hot shot progressive star. You’re famous now, you’re a celebrity with hundreds of thousands of twitter and Instagram followers. Everyone is praising you all the time, wanting your autograph or taking a picture with you. You get to be on TV every day, you’re in the news. Journalists want to interview you.

You go to D.C and get sworn in. Now you’re making $200k a year. Whereas before you were a working class person who had a boss and what not, now you’re the boss of 10-15 congressional staff members. Instead of you working for someone else, now others are working for you. The power dynamics change. All of the people you work with on a daily basis, instead of being fellow working class people, now you’re working with others making $200k a year and many of them being quite considerably rich. Not only that, but you’re no longer just another person in the world. You have access to all sorts of money and power.
Before, you were a working class person who could only afford to take maybe one good vacation a year. Now you get to travel every weekend for three day weekends as part of your job. You can even fly in business class now.

Before, if you attended a protest or march, you would just be another person in the crowd, but now you’re one of the speakers. You get to hang out with celebrity artists and athletes and so forth, instead of watching them on tv from your former one/two bedroom apartment. You get to live in two places now instead of one.

I could go on but yea. You could be the best person in the world with the most working class background and what not, but running for office and being elected, it changes you. Once you’re in power, you’re no longer working class. However good a person may be, being in power will bring out your ego. It will corrupt even the best of persons, turn them into sociopaths and narcissists, however much they try to mask it with cute dog pictures or dancing videos or passionate speeches.

Bridges to peace part one

Every war/conflict in the past 5,000 years has been over resources and trade routes. This is why ever since human settlement brought about a trade based economy, there’s been war/conflict in the Middle East. It’s why certain cities in that region go back a long ways. Jerusalem. Damascus. Baghdad. Tehran. Istanbul. Cairo. Religion, democracy, civilization, human rights and so forth are just the various excuses made to hide that every war is about resources and trade routes. Anyways, as long as we have a trade based economy, we should try to alleviate unnecessary suffering by providing new alternative land based trade routes that relieve long time choke points while spreading the wealth around to more places, thus hopefully lessening the wars and death over current trade routes.

1. Build two bridges to Yemen. One from Djibouti, and one from Eritrea. This would connect central, eastern, and southern Africa to the Arabian Peninsula. You could just build one bridge, from Djibouti, but it’s better if all the wealth and trade doesn’t funnel through one spot. Having both bridges spreads the wealth around. This means people & trade from Africa and Europe doesn’t have to pass through Cairo (Egypt) & Jerusalem (Israel) as they can go across at Djibouti/Eritrea and Yemen, up/down Saudi Arabia to/from Damascus and on to/from Istanbul.
2. Build a high speed ferry system from Somalia to Yemen. Somalia is too far from Yemen for a bridge, so a high speed ferry system provides another connection from central/eastern/southern Africa to the Arabian Peninsula.
3. Build a bridge from Iran to Oman. This combined with the bridges & ferries to Yemen creates a land based route connecting central Asia to central/eastern/southern Africa. This means that people and trade have an alternative to the Cairo-Jerusalem-Baghdad-Tehran route. It also provides, if ever so slightly, a little bit of hope to the Palestinians as Israel, and more so Jerusalem, become a little less important for Africa & Asian trade.
4. Build a bridge from Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula to Saudi Arabia. This creates a new land based route from northern Africa to the Arabian Peninsula without having to go through Jerusalem. It also means people & trade can cut across into Saudi Arabia and then go north to Baghdad and up to Tehran to get to central/east Asia instead of through Jerusalem.
5. Build a bridge from Egypt’s Sinai Peninsula to Jordan. This idea would seem pointless since it’s almost at the end of the bay, but it means people and trade to/from northern Africa would have three routes to take to/from central/east Asia and three routes to take to/from Europe. One is the current way through Jerusalem & Israel, another is across to Saudi and up, and the third being go across to Jordan and up. Two options is better than one, but three is even better than two. Trade between northern Africa & Europe, whether via Israel, Jordan or Saudi Arabia, would pass through Damascus. The two bridges from Egypt to Jordan and Saudi Arabia also means that people and trade between northern Africa and central/east Asia can bypass Jerusalem and Baghdad, instead going through the Arabian Peninsula to the Oman-Iran bridge crossing.
6. Build a bridge from Morocco to Spain. This would mean people and trade going between Africa & Europe have a land based route where they don’t have to go through Istanbul. Basically, in a trade based economy, the Gibraltar Strait connection is the holy grail. You could do all the other things, but in terms of land based connection, whether you go through Djibouti, Eritrea, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Israel, Syria, it doesn’t matter you’re still left with that choke point of trade between Asia and Europe called Istanbul, formerly known as Constantinople. The Gibraltar Strait bridge means there’s a land based connection between Africa & Europe that doesn’t require going through Istanbul.

So yea, you do those six projects, while it wouldn’t end wars in the Middle East in of itself, it should help by relieving current and long existing choke points of trade and movement. It would help spread the wealth around so it doesn’t get concentrated and bottled in the same few places, which has led to war after war after war over the same god damn cities and trade routes. The total cost of all those projects would run in the hundreds of billions, the logistics of building some of the bridges would be difficult since by themselves, a Gibraltar Strait bridge, a Djibouti/Eritrea to Yemen bridge, and a Strait of Hormuz Oman-Iran bridge would all each be the most amazing bridge ever built in the world. That said, I think the end result would be worth it.

Now just to be clear, this bridges to peace idea is only because of the trade economy. However cool it may be, it’s just a way to hopefully alleviate suffering as the real solution to wars is of course abolishing the trade economy.

U.S Capitol should be moved

So AOC (Alexandria Ocasio Cortez) said/mentioned something today that got me thinking. She explained the congressional schedule, why congresspersons go home to their districts on Thursdays. Essentially, congresspersons work in D.C four days a week, then go home to their districts for three days. They repeat that process three times, then they get a one week congressional recess. Anyways, it made me think, as I do ever so much, why in the hell is Washington D.C the capitol of the country?

Let’s say a congressperson gets off work in D.C at 5pm on Thursday and is at the airport by 6pm to catch an 8pm flight (get there two hours early as advised). A NY rep like AOC is in their district by 9pm, gets a full nights rest and because it’s a short hop from NYC to D.C, she doesn’t have to leave NYC until late Sunday to get back to D.C. She gets to spend a full three days in her district, and doesn’t suffer travel fatigue. Even a rep from Miami, where it’s a two hour flight, gets home on Thursday night and doesn’t have to leave until Sunday evening, and doesn’t travel too much.

Now, a congressperson from California, Oregon and Washington, say they also catch an 8pm Thursday flight home. Any flight from D.C to those states is at least five hours. From D.C to Seattle it’s probably about 5 ½ hours. They also have to cross three time zones, so while on the way home they still get in on Thursday night, because of the long flight they can get jet lag and be a little hampered the first day home. On Sunday though going back to D.C, they lose three hours of time, so basically a congressperson from Seattle spends nine hours traveling on Sunday. In other words, while an east coast congressperson can spend all of Sunday in their district, a west coast congressperson has to leave early Sunday. Not to mention that, again, the west coast congressperson may need a day to recover from jet lag after getting back to D.C.

On top of the time spent traveling, is the cost of traveling. Obviously, longer flights cost more than shorter flights. This means that congresspersons on the west coast have to spend far more on traveling to/from their districts.

When the country was first founded, it made sense to have the capitol where it is, because the country was only on the east coast. Now that the country stretches from coast to coast, I don’t think it makes any sense to maintain the capitol on one coast, forcing some congresspersons to spend far more time and money traveling while not getting to spend as much time with their constituents as other congresspersons because of the travel demands. I think, much like our systems of governance, this country needs to enter the 21st century.

I think a decent location for a new capitol for the current existing 50 state country is St. Louis Missouri. It’s not quite the middle of the country but it’s in the central time zone. No location in the lower 48 is more than a four hour flight away. St. Louis is less than a two hour flight away from many large population centers, such as Minneapolis, Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit, Indianapolis, Cincinnati, Columbus, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Philadelphia, Memphis, Nashville, Dallas, Houston, Denver, Atlanta, Charlotte and more. It shaves more than an hour of flight time each direction to the west coast states, while also shaving off one time zone difference. The city makes sense in terms of USian history, as it’s where Lewis & Clark began their expedition, which is why the U.S stretches from coast to coast anyways. If it weren’t for St. Louis, the U.S wouldn’t be what it is today. One could say that, just in terms of history and not modern logistics, that D.C made perfect sense for the original 13 states, for the original U.S, and that St. Louis makes sense for the post Lewis & Clark and modern day U.S.

We’re in the 21st century, yet for the most part, the U.S finds itself stuck in the 18th century. Our capitol is in a place that doesn’t make sense, our laws and courts and governing systems were founded by 18th century slaveholders. I’m not a fan of nation-states, but I mean, let’s at least become a 21st century country. Move the capitol to St. Louis, abolish the Senate, uncap the House of Reps and change it to a parliamentary system with proportional representation, abolish the Supreme Court, adopt the universal basic human rights as outlined by the UN and yea.

Random thoughts

The thing I don’t understand about all the border stuff is why it’s even an issue to begin with. What I mean is, we don’t even need so called immigration reform. We don’t need even the smallest bit of border security. Why? Currently as a country, as a whole, we throw away about half our food. Now, it’s not all individuals throwing away their food, it’s corporations throwing it away too rather than giving it away for free because it wasn’t sold. Also, there are millions of people in the country going hungry every day. Our food distribution system is shit (pardon my language) because of capitalism. That said, my point is, as a country, half our food gets thrown away. In other words, technically speaking, we grow enough food today to feed a population of double our current size. Our current population is around 330 million. Just on food alone, we can support a population of 660 million people, right now. So what I’m wondering is, why is immigration even a fucking issue?

If I was running for office right now, I wouldn’t do what the Democrats do, which is claim we need border security and fund DHS & ICE and not oppose the Bush/Obama/Trump deportation program, but be against the wall & child concentration camps. No. No no. I would say, abolish the god damn border. Let everybody in. We can support all of them. We have enough resources and space to support every last person coming across the southern border. In fact, I would go even further. Hey China, you don’t want your east Turkestan muslims? Instead of putting them into concentration camps, give them to us. We’ll take them in and support them. Hey Myanmar, you don’t want the Rohingya anymore? Fine, we’ll take them. Putin, you don’t want LGBTQ people? Send them our way, we’ll love and support them. Israel, you won’t give the Palestinians their freedom? Fine, just let us have them and we’ll create a Palestine here. I mean, at the very minimum, the U.S can support another 330 million people. There’s currently between 60 and 70 million refugees/stateless people in the world. The U.S can bring in all of them with room and resources to spare.

This isn’t to mention that, if we’re being honest, the U.S can actually support a population between 1 billion and 1.3 billion pretty comfortably. Agriculture accounts for roughly 90% of water use. Only 10% of water use is household/buildings etc. Aquaponics/permaculture/agroforestry and other types of sustainable regenerative ecological food growing systems can grow the same amount of food as traditional/monoculture/industrial/animal agriculture using just 1/10th the amount of water. So basically, even with today’s amount of food waste, we could grow 3x as much food using 70% less water to support a population of 1 billion. Add on that non agricultural water use would go from 10% to 30% due to the population increase, and overall speaking, as a country we’d be using 43% less water than today while supporting a population three times greater than today. With that amount of water use reduction, we could even remove a lot of dams, and we’d be much more drought resistant!

Of course, lastly on this issue, as a matter of principle, I believe in the basic human right known as freedom of movement. Borders, to put it lightly, are a violation of this human right. Borders are an artificial creation. It’s just a line on a piece of paper which wouldn’t have any power over human lives were they not enforced by men with guns. Some things in life which we think are real are in fact not real. Borders are one such example. However, I know I can be quite idealistic, and I also know that to be against borders, to be against the concept of the nation-state, is to open yourself to being called anti-American. Anti-patriotic. Hates his own country. All those kinds of insults. So yea. Ugh.

On the 2020 Dem primary, before it gets into full gear, I just want to say that since well basically I’ll never be able to like any of them, I just hope it’s a woman that wins. That’s it, that’s all I’ll say from now until November 2020. In fact, just for the sake of it, I hope all the men stay out of it and just let the primary be an all women primary. I think that’d be cool. I don’t care which of the women win, just let it all be women. All women debates. 1st 2nd and 3rd place in the Iowa caucus all be women. Coming down to the wire, who’s gonna be the Dem nominee, one woman or her opponent, another woman? Then in 2024, or 2028 if the Dems woman nominee wins in 2020, AOC can run and win. Have the 2020’s be the changing of the guard per se, the decade of the women leaders. Will it change much ideologically, enough to save us from catastrophic and possible extinction level global warming? Probably not, but having a little bit of hope would be better than having none at all, I think.

New college football playoff idea

So my twin brother and I have come up with a new idea for how to determine the college football national champion. As good as the four team playoff has worked, it’s not legitimate when a group of five school can go unbeaten two years running and not even have an opportunity. What we’re calling our new system is the College Football Cup, since we’re taking a page out of the soccer playbook. Here’s how it’d work.

We’d abolish the conference championship games. After everyone’s played their 12 games, the playoff committee will release their final rankings. The top 20 teams go to the college football cup. Teams ranked one through four don’t play until the quarterfinals/elite eight. Teams ranked five through 20 get separated into four groups of four. Group one is #5-8, group two is #9-12, group three is #13-16 and group four is #17-20. All games until the national championship game (college football cup final) are played at the campus home stadium of the higher ranked team. The winner of group one plays at #4 in the quarterfinal, the winner of group two plays at #3, winner of group three plays at #2 and the winner of group four plays at #1.

The top four ranked teams don’t play any additional games compared to what they must play today to win the ‘natty, which is 15 games. The length of the season isn’t any longer either. Round one of group stage gets played the same week as Army-Navy currently is. This year, the schedule would like this: Group stage round one Saturday December 8th. Group stage final Saturday December 15th. Cup quarterfinals/elite eight Tuesday December 25th (Christmas). Cup semi-finals Tuesday January 1st (New Years Day). Cup final Monday January 14th. Every year, the college football cup final would be played at the Rose Bowl.
For the group stage rounds, the visiting school automatically gets 10% of the tickets, although at 96 hours prior to kickoff on game week, whatever tickets the visiting school doesn’t sell goes back to the home school to sell. For the college football cup quarterfinals, the visiting school automatically gets 20% of the tickets, with unsold visiting tickets going back to the home school 96 hours before kickoff. For the semi-finals, the visiting school gets 33% of the tickets, with an option of requesting more up to 40%. Then the cup final at the Rose Bowl, each school obviously gets 33-40% with the remainder being general admission sold to the public at large.

Just as a demonstration of how this system would work, I’ll use this year as an example. Alabama, Clemson, Notre Dame and Georgia would be the top four teams. Group one would be Oklahoma, Ohio State, Michigan and UCF, however you don’t want Ohio State and Michigan playing back to back so you switch Michigan with UCF. So Michigan would play at Oklahoma, while UCF plays at Ohio State. Assuming the higher ranked team wins, Ohio State would then go to Oklahoma, with the winner advancing to play at Georgia in the quarterfinal since the winner of group one plays #4. Group two would be #12 Penn State at #9 Florida and #11 UW at #10 LSU. Penn State would probably beat Florida and LSU would beat UW right now so then Penn State would go to LSU, with that winner going onto play at Notre Dame. Group three is #16 West Virginia at #13 Washington State and #15 Kentucky at #14 Texas. WVU has no defense and has to travel 3k miles west, so Wazzu would win and Texas would beat Kentucky. Texas would have to go to Wazzu so Wazzu would win and advance to play at Clemson. Group four is #20 Syracuse at #17 Utah and #19 Texas A&M at #18 Mississippi State. I think Utah wins that group because they’re at home in December against an indoor stadium team and a southern warm state team, so Utah goes onto play at Alabama.

Just close your eyes and imagine all those games happening. UCF at Ohio State with UCF getting to bring 10k fans, Will Grier and WVU in Martin Stadium in the December cold vs Gardner Minshew and his Mike Leach crew. A possible third edition of Ohio State and Oklahoma. Penn State playing down in The Swamp with 9k white out fans.

Then you get to the quarterfinals. Imagine Oklahoma at Georgia in a rematch of last year’s first ever overtime Rose Bowl game, but Athens being swarmed with 16+ Oklahoma fans. The fire would be intense. Or if UCF does a Cinderella run, you’d have UCF fans packing an SEC stadium to have their moment. You could have Script Ohio between the hedges. Imagine Notre Dame Stadium with a quarter of it being Penn State white. Imagine after two home wins, little remote Wazzu strolls into Clemson’s Death Valley and Coug fans drink it dry of beer while Minshew and his guys warm up in Death Valley shirtless. Think about Notre Dame going to Clemson again for the semi-finals, only this time 1/3rd of Tiger Stadium is Irish fans. It’d be epic. The dread that home school fans would have of the possibility of the road fans rushing their field. How much would Alabama fans hate seeing 1/3rd of Bryant Denny filled with Georgia fans? Oh man.

Anyways the idea of this system is that every good team gets their chance, while the top four teams get the benefit of starting in the quarterfinals. The non top four teams would have to run a gauntlet of beating five straight top 20 opponents to win the Cup, meaning a 17 game season total, so it’d be incredibly difficult and if/when it happens, it’d be quite the story to tell. Generally speaking, a top four team will still be champion, but whoever wins it would certainly have earned it. Those not in the top four wouldn’t suffer from complete wear and tear, as between their 12th game and the group stage round, they’d get a bye week, and between the group stage final and the quarterfinals, they’d get a few extra days of rest. Since the semi-final is on New Years Day and the Cup Final isn’t until Monday the 14th, it means the two teams who make the final get an extra week to prepare, just like the NFL does for the Super Bowl.

This would largely mean the end of bowl games, at least for the top 20 teams, but on the bright side, you wouldn’t see any players sitting out bowl games to prepare for the draft, since they’d want to win a national championship. While you’d be losing eight bowl games played by teams ranked 5-20, you’d actually be adding an additional eight games to the post season (16 games between the two rounds of group stage and quarterfinals), and since it’d be playoffs people would actually watch in droves, meaning the TV money would be insane. Not only would the schools be raking in the TV money, but the additional home games means even more ticket revenue.

For the record, as an Oregon fan, this system would’ve been awesome during the Masoli/Darron Thomas/Marcus Mariota/Vernon Adams years. In 2015, we had a six game winning streak to end the season with VA, we would’ve been in group three playing at #13 Ole Miss (we would’ve won), then we would’ve gone to either #15 Michigan or #14 Northwestern, both of whom we would’ve beaten. We would’ve probably bowed out in the quarterfinals/elite eight on the road at… Alabama.
In 2014 with Mariota, we would’ve started in the quarterfinals and gotten one of these four in Autzen: #16 Missouri, #15 UCLA, #14 Georgia or #13 Wisconsin. Basically, we would’ve won, at which point we’d be playing in the semi-finals at home in deafening wild crazy Autzen against #3 TCU, but with them getting to bring 18k fans although TCU isn’t a big school so they’d probably give like half of it back. In Autzen we win, then we’d get to play for the ‘natty in Pasadena instead of Jerry’s world.

In 2013 we would’ve been in group two playing at #9 Baylor, then if we won, played at the winner of Arizona State and Michigan State for a trip to go play at Auburn. In 2012 we would’ve been in group one playing at home against Stanford, just three weeks after they beat us in Autzen. That’d be fun, talk about us being out for blood. Then we would’ve gotten to play at home again against the winner of LSU and Kansas State (who we beat in the Fiesta Bowl that year). Basically, we win our group, and go play at #4 Florida in the quarterfinal. Oregon in the swamp, that’d be cool to see. Anyways Florida was massively overrated that year so we would’ve won big. We then would’ve gone on the road to #1 Notre Dame, who was also massively overrated that year, so we would’ve won big there too. We would’ve then played everyone’s dream matchup at the time, Oregon vs Alabama, in the Rose Bowl. Chip Kelly vs Nick Saban, in the Granddaddy of them all, oh yes.

2011, we would’ve also been in group one, getting two games at home. First we would’ve beaten #8 Kansas State, then we would’ve gotten the winner of Boise State and Arkansas which would’ve been Boise State because that was Kellen Moore. Boise State at Oregon, with Boise getting 5400 tickets. Oh man, the Oregon – Boise State unofficial rivalry would’ve been too hot. If we won, we would’ve gone on the road to Stanford, who we crushed on the road earlier in the season, so we win again. We then go to LSU’s Death Valley. Now, they beat us in the first game of 2011, but by the end of the year, they had literally zero offense and our young OLine had gelled, so we probably beat them the second go around. So then we’d be in the ‘natty against the winner of Oklahoma State at Alabama, oh fun!
2010, we wouldn’t play until the quarterfinals against the winner of group three. That year, group three was #16 Alabama at #13 Virginia Tech and #15 Nevada at #14 Oklahoma State. Alabama would’ve beaten Virginia Tech, and that Nevada team was the great Colin Kaepernick team so they would’ve beaten Ok State. Alabama would’ve had to travel to Reno which would’ve been funny but Alabama would’ve won. So it would’ve been Alabama in Autzen against Oregon in the quarterfinals. Autzen provides the edge. The semi-final would’ve been in Autzen against once again TCU.

2009 would’ve seen Oregon in group one, on the road at… Boise State.. oh no. Oh no. No no. No no no. Oh dear. The winner of that getting to most likely go to Florida. Jeremiah Masoli vs Tim Tebow, that would’ve been fun. We’d probably lose but yea.

2008 would’ve seen an Oregon team just hitting full stride at the end of the season going on the road to beat Cincinnati and then Oklahoma State before colliding with Tim Tebow’s Florida team in the swmap.

But yea so anyways I just think the College Football Cup would be a true playoff system that gives everyone a chance while still rewarding teams who finish in the top four with later entry into the playoff. It’d generate more TV money while creating more fun on campus matchups between schools who ordinarily would never play each other. So yea, what do you think?!

Economics of city built for cars vs car free city – Seattle

Would a car free city be cheaper than a city with cars if the costs of cars were internalized just like public transit is? Let’s see, using my hometown of Seattle for demonstration.

There are roughly 450,000 cars in Seattle, or around 640 cars for every 1k residents. The average new car price in 2017 was around $33k. The total cost of buying all those cars is $14.7 billion. The average light rail line lasts for 30 years, whereas the average lifespan of a new car is eight years. So to cover the 30 years, everyone must buy four cars. So we’re up to about $58.9 billion now. The average annual car insurance in the U.S is around $800, so that adds on another $10.8 billion over the course of 30 years. The average USian, not driver but USian, spends about $2k a year on gas. Seattle’s population is somewhere over 700k now, so this adds on another $42 billion over the course of 30 years. The SDOT says that the cost/value of all the roads that it manages is about $13 billion. We add all that up, and over the course of 30 years, Seattle would spend about $124.7 billion on cars.

That cost doesn’t include lost lives from car accidents, increased healthcare costs, lost time spent in traffic, the alienation, the harm to the ecosystem and so on. This is just the cost of the infrastructure, not even including parking lots.

The average light rail line lasts for about 30 years, and the average total costs for a ten mile line over the course of 30 years, from laying the tracks to building the stations to buying the trainsets to the annual operational costs comes out to $2.6 billion. Now, Seattle’s Sound Transit light rail has been and will be way more expensive than that, because we refuse to vacate road lanes to put light rail at surface level, so we’ve been forced to build underground and above surface elevated tracks, which just adds unnecessary cost. However, since we’re doing car free city scenario, everything is at surface level so it’s $2.6 billion for a ten mile line over 30 years. This means that, for the same cost as Seattle plans to spend on cars, the city could build an incredible 470 miles of light rail. That much light rail, at max frequency of 90 second headway, would move an astounding 1.5 million plus people each direction each hour. Basically, for the same costs as its cars, Seattle could build a light rail system big enough to support a city 5-10 times its population.

Not to mention that there’d be zero car accident deaths in a car free city. There’d be no pollution, so healthcare costs would be lower. Less commons space would be taken up, freeing up space for parks, affordable housing, schools etc. There’d be zero streetlights in a car free city, eliminating about 80-90% of light pollution, thus you’d be able to look up at night from your house in the city and be able to see the Milky Way Galaxy and a night sky filled with stars. This would also greatly help the nocturnal animals, making it less harmful to them to survive in the cities. It’d reduce alienation too, bringing the community together and resulting in happier people etc. These things are all harmed by cars and are externalities not factored into their costs.

So yea, when you actually internalize the costs of cars, building a car free city is cheaper and more economical. A car free city isn’t just better for the environment and wellbeing of society, it’s cheaper too.

Wanting to travel the world: China

So this week at my house I had guests from China, and instead of not socializing with my guests like usual because of shyness/anxiety, I talked with them and made a new friend! Making a new friend from China also naturally of course kicked into overdrive my never ending daydreaming of traveling, and this time the daydreams were of traveling to China.

I’ve always wanted to travel the world, China included, but it’s always been just like, I want to visit every country in the world so I can say I’ve been to every country. Making a new friend from China though makes me want to travel all through China the same way I’ve been all over the U.S. I want to visit all the different parts of China, explore the whole country, basically I want to get lost in China and fall in love with it just like I fall in love with the earth when I’ve driven along the shore of Lake Michigan and Lake Superior and watched sunsets from the mountains above Phoenix.

I want to visit Hong Kong and watch a sunrise/sunset from the mountains that surround it. Take a high speed train to Shenzhen and Guangzhou. Take a train up to Shanghai, and a sleeper train to Beijing. Visit Tianjin. If and when I visit China, I want to go up into the north east part of the country to the border of Korea and climb Mount Paektu. I’d want to visit ZhangJiaJie National Forest and take the cable car to the top of Tianmen Mountain and climb up to Tianmen Cave also known as the Gateway to Heaven and walk on the Coiling Dragon Cliff Skywalk. I want to go to Guilin National Park. I want to go see the Rainbow Mountains Danxia Landform Geological Park. Walk along the Great Wall of China of course. Visit Xi’an, the beginning/end point of the famous Silk Road, and then travel west along the Silk Road just like I’ve traveled on the famous U.S Route 66. I have to take a boat trip across one of China’s famous rivers, just like I’ve taken boat trips across the famous Great Lakes in the U.S/Canada. I want to wander as close as I can to the Gobi Desert, if not wander into it where there is access, since I’ve been through the middle of the Arizona Desert during the middle of summer. I want to visit all the mountain ranges of China. Visit their most famous waterfalls. Drive across their best and longest bridges. Go to the northern most point, the western most point, the southern most point and the eastern most point, experience all the different landscapes and climates of China. Visit all the different provinces and their cities. Spend a full day just riding the public transit in one of the cities like I have on Portland’s light rail and New York City’s subway. I want to have days where I’m by myself and without any understanding of their language or where anything is, I go off exploring and get lost and have to improvise and figure out my way back to wherever I’m staying, just like what happened when I was in Phoenix by myself and got completely lost at night and had no idea where anything was and just had to figure it out and eventually I found my way back to my hotel.

Long story short, not that I haven’t before, but having made a friend from there, I truly want to visit China now. I don’t want to just cross China off my long list of countries to visit, I want to spend months there exploring all of it. I want to see China the way I’ve seen the U.S and parts of Canada.

Costs of light rail vs two lane road for cars

You live in a city. Not every road is an eight lane freeway. Most roads in a city are probably two/three lane residential streets. Those kinds of roads are needed, cars are a necessity, albeit an evil necessity, because you can’t simply smother a city in light rail, that’d be too expensive. Or so they say.

Let’s build a ten mile long light rail line. The average U.S costs for the tracks and wiring and what not is $80 million per mile. So it’d be $800 million for ten miles of tracks and stuff. We’d need 11 stations, not ten, because one at each end. Say our stations are a bit on the expensive side, at $50 million each. So $550 million for 11 stations. A light rail vehicle is $4 million, and the Sound Transit trains are four vehicles connected together, so one train would be $16 million. With 90 second headway (the maximum) to enable the most passenger capacity, we’d need 20 trains. 20 trains is $360 million. The average lifespan of a light rail line, trainsets too, is around 30 years. With an annual operating cost of around $30 million including maintenance, the total operating cost over 30 years would be $900 million. So the total cost over 30 years for a 10 mile light rail line would be around $2.6 billion.

Now let’s do the two lane road. An average lane mile is $10 million. So a two lane road is $20 million per mile. A ten mile two lane road is $200 million. In terms of the cost that the city has to pay, that’s it. A road is cheaper than light rail, because with light rail the city has to build the stations, buy the trains and pay the operating costs too. In economics language, the costs of public transit are internalized. The costs of cars are externalized. To figure out the true costs of roads, we must internalize the costs of cars, so let’s do that here!

The highest capacity of a lane mile is 2,000 cars per hour, but without gridlock traffic it’s 1800 cars per hour, or one car every two seconds. A road with no cars is a waste of money, and generally speaking, the more cars on a road up until the point of gridlock, the better. So let’s say 1800 cars travel per hour each direction (3600 cars total both directions) from 6am to 8pm. The average new car cost as of last year in the U.S is $33,000. Each hour we have $119 million of cars traveling. Over 14 hours in a day we have $1.7 billion of cars. But to be fair, even though this will be off too, say the people going north in the first eight hours go south the last eight hours, and vice versa, so we cut the total number of cars in half. So that brings us down to $850 million of cars in a given day traveling on that two lane road. So our total costs for that road are up to $1.05 billion. Still cheaper than light rail. But wait!

The average lifespan of a new car is eight years. That means in the 30 year lifespan of a light rail line, everyone would have to buy four cars. So that becomes $3.4 billion on cars. We have to include the car insurance costs though, which the average per car annually in the U.S is $815. At 25,200 cars both directions every day, we get $20.5 million per year on car insurance, or $616 million over 30 years. The average USian spends $2,000 annually on gas though, so we must factor in that too. The cost for buying all that gas comes out to $50.4 million per year, or $1.5 billion over 30 years.

If you add up all the costs spent on building the two lane road, buying the cars, paying the car insurance and buying the gas, the 30 year costs for a two lane road is $5.5 billion. In other words, a ten mile two lane road for cars at its most efficient use, is slightly more than twice as costly as building a light rail over the same stretch. Not to mention, the average number of people traveling per car in the U.S is 1.5. So 1800 cars per hour each direction is 2700 people being moved by car. Even if every car had five people, that’d be 9,000 people being moved each direction every hour by car for $5.5 billion. The capacity of light rail at 90 second headway, meaning its most expensive b/c of more trainsets being bought? 32,000 people each direction per hour. A light rail vehicle is 200 people, a four vehicle trainset like Sound Transit is 800 people. 90 second headway is 40 trains per hour. So yea.

A ten mile light rail line at its most efficient moves 32,000 people every hour each direction for $2.6 billion over 30 years. A ten mile two lane road at its most efficient moves 9,000 people every hour each direction for $5.5 billion over 30 years. If you get where I’m going, long story short, light rail is cheaper than even a two lane road for cars once you internalize the main costs of cars. This doesn’t include the other externalities of cars, such as increased health care costs/deaths due to pollution and/or car accidents, or the societal costs due to how much urban/commons space that roads take up.

So yea, light rail is actually more economical than a two lane road for cars when you internalize all the societal costs of cars.